What is international transportation and under what conditions does it work?
What is International Transportation?
Simply, international transportation means any movement of goods from one country to another, subject to specific laws and regulations. This method of transportation that takes place outside the borders of a country involves a variety of methods and is not limited to one particular type.
Types of international transport modes
As mentioned above, this method of transporting goods is not restricted in any particular way, and any means of sending goods from one country to another can be included in this category. Accordingly, this type of transportation includes the following methods.
- road transportation
- Maritime Transportation
- railroad transportation
- Transportation via pipelines
- Combined transport
How is international transportation performed?
This transportation is done by certain companies called International Transportation Companies. These companies are, in fact, a real person working in the international transport field in various ways. International Freight Forwarding by International Freight Forwarders is based on contracts known as International Freight Forwarding. These contracts, which are negotiated between the parties, specify the type of transportation, the duties of each party, and such as may be specified by the client.
Types of international transportation companies
Companies active in international transportation generally operate in the following two ways, with each company taking on different tasks depending on the type of activity.
- Forwarding companies
- Carrier Companies
Forwarder companies actually carry out a variety of international transportation activities, including coordinating operations and arranging the shipment and delivery of goods in one of the land, air, sea, or a combination of these three methods, based on the bill of lading. Exports and regulated contracts.
In other words, forwarding companies are a person or a law firm that directly concludes an international freight contract with the customer. These types of companies have different tasks that can be summarized in the following few cases.
- Issuance of order for transportation of the desired goods
- Concluding a contract with the owner of the goods
- Issuance of the bill of lading according to the terms and conditions of the contract
- Collection of goods according to the requirements of the owner of the goods and items specified in the contract
- Freight warehousing based on the requirements of the owner of the goods and those specified in the contract
- Consignment packed according to the requirements of the owner of the goods and items specified in the contract
- Freight insurance based on the claims of the owner and those specified in the contract
- Doing various duties related to customs office at the origin and on the basis of work
- Contracting with various carriers and obtaining a maritime, land and air voyage or bill of lading
- Obtain information from the freight flow and provide information to the owner of the goods on the basis of a contract between the owner and the carrier
- Delivery of goods to Customs of destination (Iran) in land transport and signature of fractions and overloads.
- Obtaining the minutes of deductions and surcharges and damages of goods and services, and the discharge of a representative of a maritime and air carrier and other duties in connection with other responsibilities.
- Settle with related parties
- Declaration of entry of goods to the owner of the goods
Carrier activity actually involves a variety of operations, including the immediate relocation of goods from one country to another in one of the three methods of land, air, sea, or a combination of these. To put it simply, carrier companies, or carriers of a legal entity, are contracting freight forwarders or freight forwarders and are committed to completing international freight operations and those specified in the contract. The following are some of the most important tasks for carriers.
- Arrangement of transportation contract and issuance of mail
- Providing travel documents, including Carnegie Bean, Carnegie Passage, Visa, Insurance and Certificate of Acceptance
- Submission of necessary guarantees to the relevant organs in order to obtain the necessary documents and documents.
- Consider the truck suitable for transportation according to the deadline set in the contract
- Delivery of goods by consignor or forwarder and monitoring of truck loading in accordance with the contents of cargo documents
- Delivery of relevant goods documents to customs authorities from the point of departure to destination and caution in keeping sealed goods safe
- Delivery of the goods to the consignee at locations previously authorized and authorized by the Customs Administration.
- Observe the specified route and the transit time specified by the customs office.
- Observe the route and shipment time of the goods in accordance with the transportation contract
- Discharging or supervising the discharge and counting of goods and signing documents relating to any deductions, additions and damages
Laws relating to different modes of international transport
There are various ways to transport a good from one country to another. International modes of transport, from ground to air, follow each of their respective rules. Active companies are also required to comply with these rules.
By air, international laws and regulations such as the Chicago Convention of 1974 and the Warsaw Convention may be mentioned. The CMR Convention of 1956 and the Karnataka Convention of 1959 are among the most important international laws in the field of road transport. The Brussels Convention, The Hague Protocol, the Hamburg Convention and the United Nations Convention in Geneva and the Rotterdam Regulations also refer to the laws governing international transportation by sea.
In international transportation the goods move from one country to another in different ways, each with its own rules and regulations. International transportation is done by specific companies, which are divided into two categories: Freight Forwarder and Carrier. There are different legal systems governing each mode of international transport which is essential to understanding them.
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